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“The results that we report this year are particularly important because they underline that the trends in mortality from pancreatic and female lung cancer do not show the favorable trend of other important cancers – notes Boffetta

– Measures to continue improving cancer mortality should include smoking cessation, particularly in women, controlling overweight and alcohol consumption, optimizing screening and early detection for breast, bowel and – in Central and Eastern Europe – even neck cancer uterus.

Up-to-date data management needs to be implemented across Europe, particularly in the central and eastern area, and vaccinations should be widely available for women to eliminate cervical cancer, which is caused by the human papilloma virus, and against human papilloma virus. hepatitis B, which is linked to liver cancer. Effective treatment of hepatitis C will also help control liver cancer “.

The paralysis of prevention programs due to the pandemic is worrying ‘

In an editorial accompanying the research, José Martín-Moreno of the University of Valencia and Suszy Lessof of the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies write that “the key to understanding the past and how to face the future is data”.

They believe that “the analysis gives cause for hope”, however they highlight potential problems from Covid-19 as cancer is a “serious risk factor for patients infected with Covid-19, which leads to a greater likelihood of admission to therapy intensive, mechanical ventilation and mortality “.

According to the research, “the most worrying thing in the long term is the paralysis of prevention, screening and early diagnosis programs. Since March 2020, all the activity linked to the progress of the last decades has stopped abruptly “.

It is too early to quantify the impacts, but it seems inevitable that they will have marked consequences. “The possible impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on effective consolidated mortality for 2020, for 2021 and beyond, requires vigilance”, conclude Moreno and Lessof.

Lung cancer is a cancer that originates in the lungs. The lungs are two spongy organs, located in the rib cage, which allow the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in industrialized countries, both among men and women. Lung cancer claims more lives each year than colon, prostate, ovarian and breast cancer combined.

People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer; in particular, this risk increases with time and the number of cigarettes smoked. If you stop smoking, even after smoking for many years, the chance of developing lung cancer is significantly reduced.

What is the epidemiological burden of Lung Cancer?

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in industrialized countries. Its incidence has been increasing in all the most industrialized countries since the beginning of the last century and tends to grow especially in men between 45 and 55 years of age. In Italy in 1986 its incidence was 67 / 100,000 inhabitants. New cases of lung cancer are increasingly recorded in women due to the increase in women smokers.

What are the types of lung cancer?Primary lung neoplasms are divided into benign, intermediate and malignant. Malignant neoplasms are by far the most frequent: bronchogenic carcinoma, pulmonary sarcomas, blastoma and pulmonary lymphoma belong to them.

The bronchogenic tumor among these is the most frequent; this, the latest guidelines, classify it in:Small cell lung cancer: occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer but has a worse prognosis;

Non-small cell lung cancer: identifies two different types of lung cancers that behave similarly, namely squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.What are the causes of lung cancer?Like all cancers, the exact cause is not known, but derives from a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors.

Among the risk factors, smoking is the most important (about 80% of lung cancer patients smoke or have been smokers). The risk of contracting the cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years of exposure. Overall, the disease is 4 to 12 times (depending on the studies) more frequent in smokers than in non-smokers.

Other risk factors are represented by atmospheric pollution, from occupational exposures to harmful substances (workers assigned to the treatment of steel working in blast furnaces, welders,

painters, especially in the absence of protective masks) from tuberculous inflammatory lung lesions (cancer on scar ), from previous laryngeal cancer or previous lung cancer (second lung cancer) in 4-5% of cases.

What are the symptoms of lung cancer?Lung cancer typically doesn’t cause signs and symptoms in its early stages. Lung cancer signs and symptoms typically only occur when the disease is advanced.

Symptoms can be divided into:Pulmonary symptoms: persistent cough, haemophtoe (coughing up blood), dyspnoea, recurrent pneumonia, abscess formation.General symptoms: asthenia, weight loss, low-grade fever.

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